Welkom bij Kennisagenda Automatisch Rijden, een initiatief van het Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Waterstaat, Rijkswaterstaat en de RDW, om een online overzicht te geven van beschikbare en benodigde kennis op het gebied van automatisch rijden.
Het overzicht is verdeeld in een aantal kennisdomeinen om de diverse facetten in beeld te brengen. In de bibliotheek vindt u een uitgebreide collectie van rapporten, papers en presentaties, inclusief samenvattingen en achtergrondinformatie. De bibliotheek wordt wereldwijd gebruikt. Het laatste rapport over Ethiek werd in korte tijd 674 keer opgevraagd! Dagelijks worden ca 30 stukken gedownload.
“Brand equity has been found to be positively related to customer loyalty and willingness to pay. While strong brands are generally helpful for the marketing of products and services, the importance of brands has been found to vary across industry sectors, with a high relevance for the marketing of automobiles . The relevance of branding strongly depends on the function of the brand as risk reducing factor, its function to enhance information efficiency, and its symbolic value. Since the purchase of a new car is an extensive decision involving comparably high expenditures and the collection of extensive information, strong brands can promote the purchasing process.
Besides the sparse empirical evidence for the risk-reducing effects of strong brands in the context of automated driving , the aforementioned brand functions should be positively related to consumer acceptance of automated driving systems. Knowledge and experience of consumers with automated driving technology is marginal. In combination with additional cost for automated driving abilities, consumers are likely to evaluate a purchase decision as risky. Strong brands can effectively help to reduce perceptions of risk. “
Gevonden in (p.691): Consumer Perceptions of Automated Driving Technologies: An Examination of Use Cases and Branding Strategies
“While consumers still have many questions about safety, liability and the operation of self-driving cars, their receptivity increased significantly when presented with the right value proposition, which can be summed up as follows: shorter commute times + reduced traffic-related variability + the ability to use the vehicle in either self-driving or human- operated mode (self-driving on/off) = a strong incentive for consumer adoption.
Companies that get the value proposition right – and deliver a mobility/driving experience that is esthetically and emotionally pleasing could dominate the market. Companies that miss the mark on either the technology or the mobility experience could find themselves left behind. “
Gevonden in (p.4): Self-Driving Cars: Are We Ready?
Wat zijn de weerstanden en barrières in de maatschappij en bij individuen om deze innovatie te accepteren, bijv. waarom zit er nog een bestuurder op de tram/trein?
Op bladzijde 9 worden 4 manieren genoemd waarop de acceptatie versneld kan worden. Mensen zijn het meest overtuigd als ze een autonome auto in levende lijve zien rijden. Bladzijde 10 geeft mogelijke voordelen van de autonome auto en in hoeverre de respondenten het daar mee eens zijn.
Matthews and Desmond (1996) have found that driver stress is an important factor in the drivers like, or dislike, of driving and is linked to the their experience of mental workload.
Wat is ervoor nodig op de zelfrijdende auto geaccepteerd te krijgen?/Wanneer accepteren mensen deze voertuigen?
Onderzoek gedaan in Duitsland. Factoren die belangrijk zijn voor de acceptatie van de zelfrijdende auto.
– Registration criteria for autonomous vehicles must be defined by the responsible
authorities; with regard to safety standards, both fundamental ethical questions (how
safe is safe enough?) and political aspects (e.g. distributive justice, data protection)
must be taken into account and handled on the legislative/regulatory level as
– Key will be the legal regulation of dealing with the possible and small-scale accidents
in autonomous driving, and in particular adjustment processes. Product liability in
particular will have to be resolved (Chaps. 25 and 26).
– Adaptation or expansion of the current traffic laws would have to be considered in this context.
-Crucial for risk management are safety measures to ensure both that autonomously
guided vehicles can safely stop in critical situations and that they provide passive
protection for occupants in the event of an accident.
-Significant problems with data protection and privacy are to be expected if autonomous driving takes place within networked systems (although autonomous driving does not pose specific issues in this regard compared to other fields). Technical and legal measures (Chap. 24) should be introduced here to take account of the wide-ranging public debate on these issues (e.g. NSA, indiscriminate data collection).
Factoren die invloed zullen hebben op de acceptatie
Acceptability of ADAS is highly dependent upon solid demonstration of these features. Acceptability is also found to be dependent of the form in which ADAS applications are implemented. For the end-user the benefits should be clear and preferably directly noticeable. For this reason comfort enhancing features stand a
better change than safety enhancement properties. Most drivers consider themselves at least better drivers with respect to safe behaviour than average. Strict requirements for ADAS applications by all stakeholders are safe (and valid) operation and reliability, false alarms are not acceptable for end-users particularly.
Niet concreet een keuze, maar mogelijkheden voor de keuze van verantwoordelijkheid.
Road traffic also raises important issues of tort liability: who should pay for the costs of the accident. From a legal perspective the introduction of ADS presents at least three new issues (Pagallo 2013: 110): first, the law has so far seen robots and autonomous systems merely as tools and not as agents and doesn’t seem equipped to cope with the presence of non-human intelligent systems (see also Calo 2016); secondly and relatedly, when systems equipped with complex artificial intelligence are used the driver/owner may not always be responsible for the behaviour of the system: sometimes others should, other times nobody may, for instance in the event of a malfunctioning that no reasonable person could have predicted; in this respect things can be even more complex in the case of a shared vehicle, where owner and user do not coincide (see section below on ownership); third, unlike what happens for instance with robo-traders, liability for road accidents concern also “extra-contractual” third parties, that is parties not bound by any contractual relationship with the owner/driver (a typical example here would be an unknown pedestrian).